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  • 周易

    易經》是中國最古老的文獻之一,并被儒家尊為“五經”之首;上古三大奇書:《黃帝內經》、《易經》、《山海經》。《易》事實上是集合了古代的《連山》、《歸藏》和《周易[1],但《連山》和《歸藏》已經失傳。《易經》以一套符號系統來描述狀態的變易,表現了中國古典文化的哲學和宇宙觀。它的中心思想,是以陰陽兩種元素的陰陽一元論去描述世間萬物的變化。

    廣義的《易》包括《易經》和《易傳》。《易經》分為《上經》三十卦,《下經》三十四卦。由于《易經》成書很早,大約在西周時期,文字含義隨時代演變,《易經》的內容在春秋戰國時便已不易讀懂,因此春秋戰國時代的人撰寫了《十翼》,又稱為《易傳》,以解讀《易經》。

    普遍認為《易經》最初是占卜用的書,但它的影響遍及中國的哲學、宗教、醫學、天文、算術、文學、音樂、藝術、軍事和武術。自從十七世紀開始,《易經》亦被介紹到西方。

    目錄

    名字的由來

    《周易》一名有幾種不同的解釋。 

    • “周”,東漢鄭玄《易論》,認為“周”是“周普”的意思,即無所不備,周而復始。而唐代孔穎達《周易正義》認為“周”是指中國陜西省岐山縣(古稱西岐,西周發祥地)地名,是周朝的代稱。有人認為《易經》流行于周朝故稱《周易》,亦有人依據《史記》的記載“文王拘而演周易”,認同《易經》乃周文王所著。然而在幾種較早期的文獻,例如《論語》、《莊子》、《左傳》卻只稱《易經》為《易》,“周易”之名最早見于《周禮》;然而《周禮》的年代,學者還有爭議。所以,就文獻而言,“周”應該是后來加上去。若以《周禮》的系統來看,《三易》的名稱皆無朝代名,所以《周易》的“周”解釋為“周普”和其它兩種占筮書,比較能夠相應。然而夏代是否有《連山》、商代是否有《歸藏》也都還是問題。兩書很可能也是“古史積累說”所言的現象。所以比較肯定的是,《易經》或《周易》原來只稱為《易》。
    • “易”,也有幾種解釋:

    下面的圖表列舉了八卦和六十四卦,并依據現代的二進制,從最底的爻算起,以 1 代表陽,0 代表陰。

    八卦
    卦名卦像自然性情家族方位二進制Unicode
    西北111U+2630
    少女西110U+2631
    中女101U+2632
    長男100U+2633
    長女東南011U+2634
    中男010U+2635
    少男東北001U+2636
    西南000U+2637

    六十四卦


    坤(地)

    艮(山)

    坎(水)

    巽(風)

    震(雷)

    離(火)

    兌(澤)

    乾(天)
    ←上卦
    ↓下卦


    11.地天泰


    26.山天大畜


    5.水天需


    9.風天小畜


    34.雷天大壯


    14.火天大有


    43.澤天夬


    1.乾為天

    乾(天)


    19.地澤臨


    41.山澤損


    60.水澤節


    61.風澤中孚


    54.雷澤歸妹


    38.火澤睽


    58.兌為澤


    10.天澤履

    兌(澤)


    36.地火明夷


    22.山火賁


    63.水火既濟


    37.風火家人


    55.雷火豐


    30.離為火


    49.澤火革


    13.天火同人

    離(火)


    24.地雷復


    27.山雷頤


    3.水雷屯


    42.風雷益


    51.震為雷


    21.火雷噬嗑


    17.澤雷隨


    25.天雷無妄

    震(雷)


    46.地風升


    18.山風蠱


    48.水風井


    57.巽為風


    32.雷風恒


    50.火風鼎


    28.澤風大過


    44.天風姤

    巽(風)


    7.地水師


    4.山水蒙


    29.坎為水


    59.風水渙


    40.雷水解


    64.火水未濟


    47.澤水困


    6.天水訟

    坎(水)


    15.地山謙


    52.艮為山


    39.水山蹇


    53.風山漸


    62.雷山小過


    56.火山旅


    31.澤山咸


    33.天山遁

    艮(山)


    2.坤為地


    23.山地剝


    8.水地比


    20.風地觀


    16.雷地豫


    35.火地晉


    45.澤地萃


    12.天地否

    坤(地)

    六爻是從最底向上數的,最底下稱為“初”,接著是“二、三、四、五”,最頂稱為“上”。另外,最頂兩爻代表“天”、中間兩爻代表“人”、最底兩爻代表“地”,也就是所謂的天地人三位一體。

    卦序

    卦序根據河圖洛書和先后天八卦推衍而得,分上下兩經。體現了“天圓地方”、“天動地靜”的思想。

    Unicode

    八卦符號收錄于Unicode 1.1,其以外之符號則被Unicode 4.0收錄。

    該等符號被收錄于以下兩Unicode Block內:

    • Miscellaneous Symbols (U+2600–U+26FF):
      • 兩儀:U+268A (?) and U+268B (?)
      • 四象:U+268C–U+268F (? ? ? ?)
      • 八卦:U+2630–U+2637 (? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?)
    • 易經六爻符號 (U+4DC0–U+4DFF):
      • 六十四卦:U+4DC0–U+4DFF
    易經六爻符號
    Unicode.org chart (PDF)
     0123456789ABCDEF
    U+4DCx????????????????
    U+4DDx????????????????
    U+4DEx????????????????
    U+4DFx????????????????

    易與二進制

    中國有廣為流傳的觀點認為現代計算機的二進制來自于中國的八卦,但這早已被證明是一個神話。對這一錯誤,郭書春在《古代世界數學泰斗劉徽》一書461頁指出:“中國有所謂《周易》創造了二進制的說法,至于萊布尼茨受《周易》八卦的影響創造二進制并用于計算機的神話,更是廣為流傳。事實是,萊布尼茲先發明了二進制,后來才看到傳教士帶回的宋代學者重新編排的《周易》八卦,并發現八卦可以用他的二進制來解釋。”因此,并不是萊布尼茨看到陰陽八卦才發明二進制。梁宗巨著《數學歷史典故》一書14~18頁對這一歷史公案有更加詳盡考察,想進一步了解者可參考。[5]

    二進制本身具有加減乘除計算,有二進制與十進制等其他進制的換算等等。二進制與陰陽八卦截然不同,陰陽八卦根本沒有加減乘除運算,沒有與其他進制的換算。把僅僅表面上類似的陰陽八卦當成二進制實際上犯了大物理學家費曼所說的草包族科學的謬誤。

    在十八世紀初德國哲學家、數學家萊布尼茨以二進制解讀易經的六十四卦。萊布尼茨在《致德雷蒙信》中指出,易經中的六十四卦圖形,恰恰與他在二十多年前發明的二進制計數法相類似:陰爻-- 可以用0表示,陽爻—可以用1表示。

    坤 000 艮 001 坎 010 巽 011 震 100 離 101 兌 110 乾 111
    • 萊布尼茨又說以0和1二數可以表示萬物,一如易經中陰爻--,陽爻-生生不息,滋生萬物。[6]
      • 000000 為六十四卦中的坤坤;
      • 000100 為六十四卦中的坤震;
      • 111111 為六十四卦中的乾乾;
    • 萊布尼茨還進一步附會八卦表示上帝七日創造世界,坤 000:為天地洪荒,萬物皆空;第一日:艮 001 為上帝造天,第二日:坎 010 為天地同在……第七日乾 111:乃萬物具備,是為主安息日。1

    參見

    • 五行
    • 陰陽
    • 太極
    • 無極

    注解

    1. ^宋代《三字經》中提到:“有連山,有歸藏,有周易,三易詳”
    2. ^參看《周易.系辭傳.上》把“易”的性質歸屬于“干”,把“簡”的性質歸屬于“坤”。
    3. ^《松崖文鈔》卷一《上制軍尹元長先生書》
    4. ^《四庫提要》稱“發揮漢儒之學,以荀爽,虞翻為主,而參以鄭康成、宋咸、干寶諸家之說,皆融會其義,自為注而自疏之。”
    5. ^數學科普:常識性謬誤令人憂
    6. ^萊布尼茨所講以0和1二數表示萬物和易經六十四卦并無關系。

    參考文獻

    • (美)羅特斯坦 著,李曉東 譯,《心靈的標符:音樂與數學的內在生命——大美譯叢》,吉林人民出版社,2001年,ISBN 978-7-206-03821-1
    • 劉大鈞,《周易概論》,齊魯書社,1988年,ISBN 753330053
    • 南懷瑾,《易經系傳別講》,中國世界語出版社,1996年,ISBN 7-5052-0181-6
    • 《周禮》
    • 司馬遷,《史記》
    • 朱謙之,《中國哲學對歐洲的影響》第二章《中國哲學與啟明運動》,河北人民出版社,ISBN 7-202-02560-4
    • 高亨,《周易古經通說》,華正書局有限公司,2005年2月1日,ISBN 978-957-580-109-0
    • 高亨,《周易古經今注》
    • 高亨,《周易大傳今注》
    • “程氏易學三書”:《易學新探》、《易辭新詮》、《易學新論》 (程石泉)
    第一卦 乾 乾為天 乾上乾下第二卦 坤 坤為地 坤上坤下第三卦 屯 水雷屯 坎上震下第四卦 蒙 山水蒙 艮上坎下第五卦 需 水天需 坎上乾下第六卦 訟 天水訟 乾上坎下第七卦 師 地水師 坤上坎下第八卦 比 水地比 坎上下坤第九卦 小畜 風天小畜 巽上乾下第十卦 履 天澤履 乾上兌下第十一卦 泰 天地泰 坤上乾下第十二卦 否 地天否 乾上坤下第十三卦 同人 天火同人 乾上離下第十四卦 大有 火天大有 離上乾下第十五卦 謙 地山謙 坤上艮下第十六卦 豫 雷地豫 震上坤下第十七卦 隨 澤雷隨 兌上震下第十八卦 蠱 山風蠱 艮上巽下第十九卦 臨 地澤臨 坤上兌下第二十卦 觀 風地觀 巽上坤下第二十一卦 噬嗑 火雷噬嗑 離上震下第二十二卦 賁 山火賁 艮上離下第二十三卦 剝 山地剝 艮上坤下第二十四卦 復 地雷復 坤上震下第二十五卦 無妄 天雷無妄 乾上震下第二十六卦 大畜 山天大畜 艮上乾下第二十七卦 頤 山雷頤 艮上震下第二十八卦 大過 澤風大過 兌上巽下第二十九卦 坎 坎為水 坎上坎下第三十卦 離 離為火 離上離下第三十一卦 咸 澤山咸 兌上艮下第三十二卦 恒 雷風恒 震上巽下第三十三卦 遯 天山遯 乾上艮下第三十四卦 大壯 雷天大壯 震上乾下第三十五卦 晉 火地晉 離上坤下第三十六卦 明夷 地火明夷 坤上離下第三十七卦 家人 風火家人 巽上離下第三十八卦 睽 火澤睽 離上兌下第三十九卦 蹇 水山蹇 坎上艮下第四十卦 解 雷水解 震上坎下 第四十一卦 損 山澤損 艮上兌下第四十二卦 益 風雷益 巽上震下第四十三卦 夬 澤天夬 兌上乾下第四十四卦 姤 天風姤 乾上巽下第四十五卦 萃 澤地萃 兌上坤下第四十六卦 升 地風升 坤上巽下第四十七卦 困 澤水困 兌上坎下第四十八卦 井 水風井 坎上巽下第四十九卦 革 澤火革 兌上離下第五十卦 鼎 火風鼎 離上巽下第五十一卦 震 震為雷 震上震下第五十二卦 艮 艮為山 艮上艮下第五十三卦 漸 風山漸 巽上艮下第五十四卦 歸妹 雷澤歸妹 震上兌下第五十五卦 豐 雷火豐 震上離下第五十六卦 旅 火山旅 離上艮下第五十七卦 巽 巽為風 巽上巽下第五十八卦 兌 兌為澤 兌上兌下第五十九卦 渙 風水渙 巽上坎下第六十卦 節 水澤節 坎上兌下第六十一卦 中孚 風澤中孚 巽上兌下第六十二卦 小過 雷山小過 震上艮下第六十三卦 既濟 水火既濟 坎上離下第六十四卦 未濟 火水未濟 離上坎下易經·系辭上傳·第一章易經·系辭上傳·第二章易經·系辭上傳·第三章易經·系辭上傳·第四章易經·系辭上傳·第五章易經·系辭上傳·第六章易經·系辭上傳·第七章易經·系辭上傳·第八章易經·系辭上傳·第九章易經·系辭上傳·第十章易經·系辭上傳·第十一章易經·系辭上傳·第十二章易經·系辭下傳·第一章易經·系辭下傳·第二章易經·系辭下傳·第三章易經·系辭下傳·第四章易經·系辭下傳·第五章易經·系辭下傳·第六章易經·系辭下傳·第七章易經·系辭下傳·第八章易經·系辭下傳·第九章易經·系辭下傳·第十章易經·系辭下傳·第十一章易經·系辭下傳·第十二章易經·說卦傳·第一章易經·說卦傳·第二章易經·說卦傳·第三章易經·說卦傳·第四章易經·說卦傳·第五章易經·說卦傳·第六章易經·說卦傳·第七章易經·說卦傳·第八章易經·說卦傳·第九章易經·說卦傳·第十章易經·說卦傳·第十一章易經·序卦傳易經·雜卦傳

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