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  • 山海經

    山海經》是中國先秦古籍。一般認為主要記述的是古代神話、地理、動物、植物、礦物、巫術、宗教、古史、醫藥、民俗、民族等方面的內容。《山海經》原來是有圖的,叫《山海圖經》,魏晉以后已失傳。《山海經》記載了許多詭異的怪獸以及光怪陸離的神話故事,長期被認為是一部荒誕不經的書[1]。有些學者則認為《山海經》不單是神話,而且是遠古地理的描述,其中包括了一些海外的遠古山川鳥獸,是一本具有歷史價值的著作[2]

    目錄

    作者

    《山海經》一書的作者和成書時間都還未確定。過去認為為大禹、伯益所作。現代中國學者一般認為《山海經》成書非一時,作者亦非一人,時間大約是從戰國初年到漢代初年楚人所作,到西漢校書時才合編在一起。其中許多可能來自口頭傳說,司馬遷說:“至禹本紀山海經所有怪物,余不敢言之也。”。清初紀曉嵐編《四庫全書》,干脆將《山海經》歸于志怪小說一類。陳盤從《周禮》疏中找到:“古山海經鄒(鄒衍)書”之說[3]。清朝學者畢沅考證其“作于禹益,述于周秦,行于漢,明于晉”。袁珂在《中國神話研究和山海經》一文中說:“《山海經》是從戰國初年到漢代初年,經過多人寫成的一部古書,作者大概都是楚地的楚人。”

    《山海經》現在最早的版本是經西漢劉向、劉歆父子校刊而成,并表示“山海經者,出于唐虞之際。”趙樺從其說[4]。晉朝郭璞曾為《山海經》作注,考證注釋者還有明朝王崇慶的《山海經釋義》、楊慎的《山海經補注》、吳任臣的《山海經廣注》、清朝吳承志的《山海經地理今釋》、畢沅的《山海經新校正》和郝懿行《山海經箋疏》,民國以后以袁珂的《山海經校注》最流行,研究《山海經》者必讀袁書。

    內容

    《山海經》全書十八卷,其中“山經”五卷,“海經”八卷,“大荒經”四卷,“海內經”一卷,共約31000字。記載了100多個邦國,550山,300水道以及邦國山水的地理、風土物產等訊息。《山海經》中對于動物的記載,據統計有277種之多,有虎、豹、狕、熊、羆、狼、犬、兔、豬、馬、猴、猿、猩、犀、牛、彘、鹿、麂、類、豚、禺、羚、羊、象、蛇、螻、猥、訾、駝、獺、狐、糜、麈等,還有猼??、畢方、帝江、何羅魚、鳥焉、狌狌[5]。郭璞認為狌狌就是猩猩。其中《山經》所載的大部分是歷代巫師、方士和祠官的踏勘記錄,經長期傳寫編纂,多少會有所夸飾,但仍具有較高的參考價值。在〈山經〉中保存大量祭祀神祇的祭禮,原本都與《周禮》所載紀錄對照研究,現在才發現可與新出土的戰國簡帛《包山楚簡》、《望山楚簡》及《新蔡楚簡》中的祭禱紀錄對比研究。

    古代中國神話的基本來源就是《山海經》,其中最著名的包括:夸父追日、女媧補天、后羿射九日、黃帝大戰蚩尤、共工怒觸不周山從而引發大洪水、鯀偷息壤治水成功、天帝取回息壤殺死鯀以及最后大禹治水成功的故事。

    除此之外,《山海經》還以流水帳方式記載了一些奇怪的事件,例如據說吃了狌狌的肉,有健步的作用,對這些事件至今仍然存在較大的爭論。

    該書按照地區不按時間把這些事物一一記錄。所記事物大部分由南開始,然后向西,再向北,最后到達大陸(九州)中部。九州四圍被東海、西海、南海、北海所包圍。這種南西北東的順序與后代從東開始,東南西北的順序習慣不同,據研究與古代帝王座北朝南以及天南地北的空間觀念有關。

    古代中國也一直把《山海經》作歷史看待[6],《隋書·經籍志》里《山海經》列史部地理類,馬端臨的《文獻通考》將《山海經》置于《經籍考·史考》中地理書之首[7],是中國各代史家的必備參考書,由于該書成書年代久遠,連司馬遷寫《史記》時也認為:“至《禹本紀》,《山海經》所有怪物,余不敢言之也。”

    《山海經》記神靈四百五十多個,多用精米(糈),與巫術相似。還兩次特別提到“九頭的蛇”。

    廖平認為《山海經》是《詩經》的傳注[8]

    中國學者張明華認為《山海經·大荒北經》中的燭龍是指北極極光[9],“人面蛇身,赤色,身長千里,鐘山之神也。”符合燭龍形象的極光。有學者據此實地勘察,發現了中國古人早已到達美洲[10]。更有人指出:《海外東經》記載的“湯谷”“扶桑”“黑齒國”等,必是美洲,因有其它典籍可參照,如《東夷傳》載:“倭國東四千余里,有裸國,裸國東南有黑齒國,船行一年可至也。”[11]

    版本

    編排

    《山海經》共有18卷,分為山經五卷及海經十三卷。

    山海經古圖

    古山海經有圖,陶淵明有“流觀山海圖”詩句。畢沅在《山海經古今本篇考》中指出:“山海經有古圖,為漢所傳,有梁張僧繇等圖”。

    但山海經漢古圖已失。今山海經圖繪于明清,有如下幾種版本:

    • (現代)廣陵蔣應鎬繪圖《山海經圖繪全像》
    • (明)胡文煥《山海經圖》
    • (清)《增補繪像山海經廣注》

    2001年中國社會科學院文學研究所研究員馬昌儀,從現存的九種山海經圖本中選出1000幅山海經圖,配合山海經文字,著《古本山海經圖說》。馬昌儀《古本山海經圖說》一般每條目附二圖,有的條目多達四圖,每條附詳細解說,是當前最完備的山海經圖本。

    相關條目

    注釋

    1. ^《史記·大宛傳》:“至《禹本紀》、《山海經》所有怪物,余不敢言之也!”杜佑認為:“《禹本紀》、《山海經》不知何代之書,恢怪不經。夫子刪詩書后,尚奇者先有其書。如詭誕之言,必后人所加也。”胡應麟則說“山海經,古今語怪之祖。”“戰國好奇之士取《穆王傳》,雜錄《莊》、《列》、《離騷》、《周書》、《晉乘》以成者”(呂子方《讀〈山海經〉雜記》,第2頁)
    2. ^段瑜:《中國〈山海經〉討論會爭議的問題》,《新華文摘》1985年第4期
    3. ^陳盤《論早期讖緯與鄒衍書的關系》,1948年,中研院史語所集刊二十、上
    4. ^趙樺《吳越春秋》:“禹……巡行四瀆,與益、夔共媒。行到名山大澤,召其神而問之山川脈理、金玉所有、鳥獸昆轟之類,及八方之民俗、殊國異域、土地里數,使益疏而記之,名日山海經。”
    5. ^《南山經》:“招搖之山……有獸焉,其狀如禺而白耳,伏行人走,其名曰狌狌,食之者善。”
    6. ^孔子家語·執轡篇》有“子夏曰:商聞《山書》曰:地東西為緯、南北為經”一語,呂子方指出,“在《家語》成書時人們已承認《山海經》是一部地理書了”(呂子方:《讀〈山海經〉雜記》,第5頁)
    7. ^《文獻通考》卷204
    8. ^《〈山海經〉為〈詩經〉舊傳考》(載《地學雜志》14卷第3期、第4期,1923年)
    9. ^《山海經新探》(成都市:四川省社會科學院,1986),頁308-314。后收錄《學林漫錄》第8集
    10. ^連云山著《誰先到達美洲》:“美國學者墨茲博士研究了《山海經》,根據經上所說《東山經》在中國大海之東日出之處,他在北美,試著進行按經考察,經過幾次失敗,他一英里一英里地依經上記過的山系走向,河流所出和流向,山與山間的距離考察,結果勝利了。查驗出美國中部和西部的落基山脈,內華達山脈,喀斯喀特山脈,海岸山脈的太平洋沿岸,與《東山經》記載的四條山系走向、山峰、河流走向、動植物、山與山的距離完全吻合……”
    11. ^葉雨蒙:〈《山海經》與美洲〉

    參考書目

    • 《山海經》,ISBN 7-5402-1420-1
    • 馬昌儀著,《古本山海經圖說》,山東畫報出版社,2002年,ISBN 7-80603-521-4;
      最新版本為:馬昌儀著,《古本山海經圖說》(增訂珍藏本),廣西師范大學出版社,2007年,ISBN 978-7-5633-6397-1,收圖1500幅,采選的版本達16種。
    • 呂子方:《讀〈山海經〉雜記》
    • 亨利艾特·默茨(Henrietta Mertz):《幾近退色的記錄》(PALE INK, Two Ancient Records of Chinese Exploration in America)
    • 《中華祖先拓荒美洲》,黑龍江人民出版社
    • 《人民日報》,1982年6月6日,第7版

    外文翻譯本

    • The Classic of Mountains and Seas,譯者:安妮·比勒爾(Anne Birrell),Penguin Classics,2000年,ISBN 0-14-044719-9
    卷一 南山經卷二 西山經卷三 北山經卷四 東山經卷五 中山經卷六 海外南經卷七 海外西經卷八 海外北經卷九 海外東經卷十 海內南經卷十一 海內西經卷十二 海內北經卷十三 海內東經卷十四 大荒東經卷十五 大荒南經卷十六 大荒西經卷十七 大荒北經卷十八 海內經

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