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  • 夢溪筆談

    夢溪筆談》是北宋的沈括所著的筆記體著作,分為二十六卷,又《補筆談》三卷,《續筆談》一卷。因寫于潤州(今鎮江)夢溪園而得名,大約成書于1086年-1093年,收錄了沈括一生的所見所聞和見解。

    現存《夢溪筆談》分故事、辯證、樂律、象數、人事、官政、權智、藝文、書畫、技藝、器用、神奇、異事、謬誤、譏謔、雜志、藥議17目共609條。內容涉及天文、數學、物理、化學、生物、地質、地理、氣象、醫學、工程技術、文學、史事、美術及音樂等學科。

    其中自然科學部分,總結了中國古代,特別是北宋時期科學的成就,詳細記載勞動人民在科學技術上的貢獻,是中國科學技術史上的重要文獻,百科全書式的著作。例如在數學方面開創了“隙積術”和“會圓術”、天文方面指出極星不在天極;得出冬至日長、夏至日短等結論、并且對天文儀器也有所改進;歷法上大膽創新,提出《十二氣歷》;地理學方面以流水侵蝕作用解釋奇異地貌成因。物理方面記載了磁偏角、凹面鏡成像實驗和聲音共振實驗;技術方面如畢升發明活字印刷術;河工高超關于合龍堵口的方法;建筑工匠喻皓的《木經》及其建筑成就;指南針、煉銅、煉鋼、石油等。其中“石油”一詞是在該書中首次提出的,并且沿用至今。英國科學史家李約瑟稱贊本書為“中國科學史上的座標”。

    關于社會歷史現象部分,比如叛亂軍李順的事跡,賦稅實況,北宋時西北和北方軍事,典制禮儀的演變,也有較詳細的記載。

    卷一 故事一卷二 故事二卷三 辨證一卷四 辨證二卷五 樂律一卷六樂律二卷七 象數一卷八 象數二卷九 人事一卷十 人事二卷十一 官政一卷十二 官政二卷十三 權智卷十四 藝文一卷十五藝文二卷十六 藝文三卷十七 書畫卷十八 技藝卷十九 器用卷二十 神奇卷二十一 異事異疾附卷二十三 譏謔卷二十四 雜志一卷二十五 雜志二卷二十六 藥議補筆談 卷一補筆談 卷二補筆談 卷三續筆談 十一篇

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