PCB Assembly: High-Quality Printed Circuit Board Design ?>

PCB Assembly: High-Quality Printed Circuit Board Design

Almost all electronic devices are made up of one or more printed-circuit boards. The printed circuit board not only holds the components and ICs together, but also facilitates the interconnections between each component. Large volumes of PCBs are manufactured for computers, portable electronics, and entertainment equipment every day. In addition, PCBs are also made for manufacturing, testing equipment, and spacecrafts.

Every electronics engineer out there, at some point in time, will have to design their own PCBs. To be successful in the PCB assembly industry, technicians and engineers must have the ability to construct a high-quality, all-purpose PCB. They definitely must learn how to do this with utmost confidence that the final product will not only meet the objective, but if possible exceed it.

Basic PCB Design Process

PCB design and PCB assembly start off by recognizing that there’s a need for a specially designed PCB. After finding out why there is a need for a particular PCB, designers should then decide on a final concept. This final design concept includes, but is not limited to, the specific functions that PCB must perform and have, circuit placements, circuit interconnection, design features, and the final dimensions.

Circuit Board DesignIn addition, the ambient temperature that the PCB will be operating in should also be addressed. Once the ambient operating temperature is determined, the designer should then use this information to specify what kind of material should be used to build the PCB. PCB materials and components should be selected accordingly to ensure operation under all forms of duress that the printed circuit board may be submitted to during its operational lifetime.

The PCB schematic should be drawn according to the final concept. The detailed schematic should illustrate the electrical implementation of each PCB function. Once the schematic is drawn, the designer can then make an accurate projection as to the PCB’s final dimension.

Bill of Materials

Before PCB assembly can proceed, a BOM, or bill of materials must be created in concurrence with the creation of the schematic. To efficiently select the components for the PCB, the designer must analyze the current node levels of the circuit and their maximum operating voltages. After the picking the electrically acceptable components, they then should be considered again based on size, availability, and budget.

Printed Circuit BoardKeep in mind that the schematic should be kept updated with the Bill of Materials at all times. Remember that the Bill of Materials should indicate the component’s quantity, value, part number, reference designators, and PCB footprint. These five aforementioned requirements are crucial since they indicate how many of component are required, explain the dimensions of each part for space allocation, and explain circuit locations and identifications while exactly recounting the circuit elements used for substitution and purchasing.

PCB Documentation

Documentation plays a big part in PCB assembly and design. The PCB’s documentation must include hardware dimensional illustrations, BOM, schematic, layout file, assembly instructions and drawings, component placement, and Gerber file set. Although not required, user guides are also useful. The Gerber file is actually jargon for the output layout files that are utilized by the manufacturers to make the PCB.

A complete Gerber file set must have the following:

• Net list file
• Drill legend
• Assembly illustration bottom and top
• Paste mask bottom and top
• Solder mask bottom and top
• FAB outline
• Drill file
• Component map
• Metal layers
• Silkscreen bottom and top

Schematic Details

The one that controls the whole PCB assembly project is the PCB schematics, so completeness and accuracy are crucial for success. Schematics include information that is needed for proper circuit operation. Schematics should always include information such as pin numbers, ratings, component values, and pin numbers.

Component Placement

After schematic details, the next in the process is component placement. PCB component placement is determined according to function, thermal management, and electrical noise considerations. Package sizes and placements are often reconsidered and changed based on cost and size. Components that are sucking up power greater than 10mA or conducting more than 10mW should powerful enough to warrant additional electrical and thermal considerations.

Of course, power management parts should make use of power planes or ground planes for heat management. Create high-current connections in accordance to reasonable drops in voltage for the connection.

We at www.pcbnet.com, ship high quality printed circuit board and assemble the Same Day! INSTANT on-line quote and ordering. From prototype to production of single, double, and multi layer PC Boards.

Get Your Own Custom Coins At ChallengeCoins4Less ?>

Get Your Own Custom Coins At ChallengeCoins4Less

The Origin of the Challenge Coins

The tradition of the challenge coin dates back to Ancient Rome. It was known that an enlisted soldier who fought bravely in battle would be typically rewarded with money, and would receive a separate coin as a bonus. Stories have claimed that the separate coin bears the insignia of the legion where it originated from. This had led some soldiers to keep their coin as a memento, instead of spending it on wine and women.

Custom-Military-CoinsAnother story that tells how the challenge coins came to be today was back in World War I. The challenge coin that we know today has now stood as an identification badge signifying loyalty to an organization or legion when the medallion of an American pilot saved himself from an execution by the French. After being shot down by the German forces, this pilot made his escape to France — but not without being apprehended by the French. He was was believed to be an enemy spy, supposed to be executed until the pilot showed them his medallion to prove his innocence. A French soldier recognized the symbol engraved in his medallion, confirming his identity — thus delaying his impending death.

The ‘Challenge’ in Challenge Coins

The origin of the so-called “challenge” goes back to post-World War II era among American soldiers posted in Germany. They adopted the local tradition of doing “pfennig checks” or “coin checks” in bars. It involved a challenger slapping the coin against the surface of the table to initiate the challenge, and if the other party or individual didn’t produce a coin of his own to prove his membership, he must treat everyone with challenge coins to a round of beer.

Uses of Challenge Coins

The uses of custom coins in the military have become more nuanced over the ages. Although challenge coins are still used as tokens of appreciation for excellent performance in their duties as members of the legion, some officers got into the business of exchanging them with their fellow servicemen like an item they can add to their collection.
Traditionally, a challenge coin was used by soldiers as proof of their membership to a particular unit. But nowadays, soldiers use them as a tool for publicity or as means to increase fundraising by handing them out to civilians or selling them.

Challenge Coins from ChallengeCoins4Less

Custom-CoinsA challenge coin or a custom coin is a small medallion or token that is usually around 1.5 to 2 inches in diameter, and about 1/10 inch thick. However, it can come in various shape and sizes like shields, arrows, or dog tags. Custom coins can be made out of a variety of metal finishes like silver, copper, pewter, or even a combination of both metal styles. Different custom cut edges and engravings can be incorporated to give the challenge coin a unique design.

One of the known manufactures of challenge coins is ChallengeCoins4Less. We vow to deliver quality custom coins with the mold and design that you specifically requested. We have done all sorts of challenge coins for different organizations/agencies/legions — the military challenge coins, police challenge coins, fire department coins, and even corporate coins. Our notable clients include NASA, the US Army, the Department of Navy, the UNDP, and Symantec.

You can check out our website (www.ChallengeCoins4Less.com) to see our selection of customized options you can choose from to determine the result of your coin. You have the choice to decide on the metal finish, custom cut edges, and engravings of your custom coin. In just two to three weeks, your challenge coins can arrive right at your doorstep, even in casings or packaging of your choice. If you are within US grounds, there will be no cost in shipping.

It is also very easy to submit a design in ChallengeCoins4Less; no need to use special or complicated image formats since we mainly work on a PC platform. A .jpeg or .pdf file will suffice. Although the pricing of the custom coin will vary, depending on the size, shape, finish, etc. you are allowed to request as many revisions in artwork or design as you need without any additional costs.

Moreover, you can get a quick quote from us today. In less than 24 hours, our customer service will immediately reply to any clarifications you may have or information you want. By filling out or no-obligation free quote form in our site, a design proof can be sent back as soon as possible.

ChallengeCoins4Less does not charge customers for design, artwork, or revisions. It is only until after we have gained your final approval on the design and that you are ready to order that we quote the price and begin working on your custom coin.

Why Go For Portable Storage Containers? ?>

Why Go For Portable Storage Containers?

It is always in the company’s best interest that options to major decisions are discussed, fought over and priced. Of course, line of sight is always in the long run, say 5 to 10 years.  However, some problems require quick solutions, and one of these problems is related to storage.

With the high cost of overhead, the main items that are seen to be controllable in a business are raw materials and inventory. However, storage problems more often crop up, resulting to increased costs due to spoilage, thus, it is important to consider the options in detail when it comes to storing items and inventory.

Storage containers

In the past years, storage is synonymous to warehouses. These warehouses are more or less located near the ports, where the steel boxes containing all items one can think of are transported over the sea. Warehouse charges are a bit expensive as the warehouse owners charge per area occupied per day.

Like all other assets, these steel boxes have a “useful life”, which for costing purposes may not necessarily equate to actual usefulness of the boxes. We know for a fact that these steel boxes were made to go against the elements that is why a number of storage companies have also gotten the ISO certification for durability.

Going into the details, let us see why it is more advantageous to use portable storage containers over traditional warehouses.

Cost. On the average, a steel container costs about $0.5050 square ft./month, For a traditional warehouse, this cost is usually trebled.

Location.

Movable ContainersPortable storage containers are onsite and items are always within reach. Warehouses are off-site and owned by third parties. This is a big issue when the talk about inventory safety is concerned.

Portability.

When using these portable containers, you have the ability to move this to places where they are needed, lock stock and barrel. For warehouses, you need to hire a freight forwarder to move your stock.

Make.

The portable containers are made of 100% cortex steel, making it a sturdy vessel to keep items. Unless the warehouse is brand new, the buildings are made of concrete and have already been subject to wear and tear.

Safety of Items.

The portable storage containers are made in such a way that they are wind and water resistant. Warehouses, because of the material with which they were constructed, may make items stored subject to condensation.

Flexibility.

You can customize the portable containers based on your own specifications and requirements. Warehouses, because of the nature of their ownership, come as is and will never be adjusted to conform to the actual need.

Footprint.

Since these containers are retired shipping boxes, there are no additional processes that will be done to harm the environment as the boxes itself are already fit for use.

Manufacture.

There is actually no manufacturing hazard when it comes to portable storage containers as these are previously retired shipping vessels. On the other hand, warehouses are built with the usual construction materials (cement, gravel, wood) and construction usually leaves a lot of waste material.

From the comparison, it can be clearly seen that our portable storage containers have the upper hand when it comes to efficiency, safety, cost, durability and portability. The material from which our containers are made of is steel and because of its safety lock feature, stored items can be considered as “hazard free”, so users don’t need to worry about items getting damaged either by the elements or fire.

Portable Storage containers

Movable Container Storage has been providing US businesses with unparalleled service when it comes to providing storage, whether it be temporary or permanent. With our branches scattered all over the United States, there is always a Movable Container Storage near you that is ready to help you address your storage solutions. Our efficient service enables our customers to function properly without necessarily worrying about where to stock inventory. As our tagline goes “We make storage our business”.

Author Bio:
Portable storage containers, cubicle storage containers, movable storage, mobile office, and temporary storage throughout the US. To know more about storage container visit www.moveablecontainer.com.
The Complete Real Estate Solution in Long Island, New York ?>

The Complete Real Estate Solution in Long Island, New York

Long Island, New York is of the best place to buy a property and settle down, with beautiful beaches all over the island, historical sites, theaters, state parks and wildlife parks, bars and restaurant, sports and recreational facilities, shopping centers and boutiques, and well-developed public transport facilities such as train stations, airport and sea port. Buying a house and lot in Long Island is a great value based on location and great deals. Real estate services from li-realestatefinder.com offers a complete and thorough services such as searching for a suitable estate, purchasing of estate, renovation and future services of your new house.

Real estate services from li-realestatefinder.com can help you find great deals for estate in Long Island without breaking the bank. We offer easy-to-use searching engine with listings for properties that are for sale, rent or buying. We take pride in our comprehensive database which is accurate and up-to-date compared to other sites. Our search engine offers simple and advance search options to suit your needs and budget. For our simple options, you can get basic information of pricing, location, and contact details for our trusted brokers. The simplified search engine menu offers the refined searches for suitable information. Once you have found your choice estate, you can contact our brokers with the details in the search engine and start transactions. Our affiliated real estate brokers are friendly, professional, and approachable.

When your real estate choices requires finer details, we can offer our advanced options for the search engine. We have options to included advance details such as specific house types, specific pricing, area of the property, and additional wants such as having extra features such pool, extra garage, extra rooms, water view, fire place etc. Our database is complete and accurate, which creates worry-free transactions. Furthermore we do not post ads on our website and there is no hidden charges for using our search engine. We also offer map searching with comprehensive listings, you can click and select the suitable house on the map for an accurate information, there is a zoom in and out feature for a greater detail. We also offer a free text quick search which you can input the house number, street name, and city for easier searching.

real estateReal estate services from li-realestatefinder.com offers find-a-broker option. Finding the appropriate real estate broker is important for a hassle-free and smooth transaction, our brokers are well-trained and professionals in their field, you can save all the hassle and enjoy in searching and buying your next property in Long Island. Our affiliate brokers can offer the best prices for both seller and buyer. You can leave your contact details such as name, phone number and email for your convenience, you can also include length of time, transaction type (buy, sale or rent), best contact timing, and best contact method. You can also include additional information in the comment section.

We also offer services related to your purchase of estate. Our other services include home loans and financing, we can help in procuring home loans with fixed rate or adjustable rates. We can help finding the right solution for your mortgage woes. Real estate services from li-realestatefinder.com also include credit repair. Banks and financial firms today will go over fine detail with your credit score, should any problems arise, and we can help in complete overhaul or minor fixes of bad credit score. We also offer construction services such as maintenance, additional buildings of your liking to your newly purchased estate, we offer affordable construction related services. Historic homes in the area may need repairs due to wear-and-tear which is reasonable. We also offer electric and plumbing services, safety and comfort is one of the priorities for newly purchased house, as stated some historic houses may need electric and plumbing repair.

Roofing and Remodeling services is also offered, such as installation of new roofs or upgrading roofs and remodeling of rooms in the house. We have professional affiliates who can manage those task without breaking the bank. Another service we offer is appraisal, sometimes buyer price does not meet seller prices, and we can help in appraising the suitable prices of your dream house. We can help lower prices or you can also bid to if it fits your budget.We also offer interior decoration and design, we can help you customized and beautify your new house. We offer retrofitting, renovation, remodeling and overhaul of interior design at suitable prices.

Real estate services from li-realestatefinder.com offers one of the best and complete services in purchasing new estate in Long Island, with our search engine, brokers and other service personnel you be rest assured of quality and best value for your new house.

Taylormade Golf Hybrids: Finding The Best Of Both Worlds ?>

Taylormade Golf Hybrids: Finding The Best Of Both Worlds

A golf club is an equipment used by golfers to hit the golf ball. It is basically made up of three parts: the head, the shaft and the grip. The golf clubs’ designs are constrained by the rules of the game so that manufacturers of the clubs work around these constraints to get the best results from the swing taking into consideration a small margin of error so that the golfer is able to make a long and accurate shot.

Callaway golfGolf clubs are designed differently to address the different needs of the golfer to bring the ball closer to the green and eventually to the hole. A wood is used for distances of more than 450 meters, an iron for distances of about 250 meters (although some experienced golfers use irons even for shorter distances. The wedges provide for better shot control especially if the ball is already on the green and the putter gets the ball into the hole.

A golfer is allowed to carry with him 14 clubs. And as they say, in golf, the competition goes tougher as you near each and every green. So often, the golfer would have 2 woods just to bring the ball within the green or closest to it, a full set of irons, and a couple of wedges and putters.

The Birth of Hybrid Clubs

Even if the excitement levels go up once the players meet each other again in the green, the first tee, which aim is to bring the ball within the green (or closest to it) is a great challenge as well.  Each and every golfer’s hope is to land the ball at least in the green (or at best get a hole-in-one). If this happens, experience will play a great part in traversing the green to finally put the golf in the hole.

However, different factors come into play (like wind direction and strength, speed of the hit, wrong choice of club) and sometimes the first tee lands in the green, at other times fairway, sometimes in the bunker, and at worst, in the rough. This could be one of the reasons why some 10 years ago, a move to use hybrid clubs came into being.

TaylorMade Golf: Brand of Choice

Golf ballFor the past couple of years, TaylorMade Golf has been inching its way as the brand of choice when it comes to golf clubs. The ability of its clubs to provide more forgiveness and accuracy are factors that have enabled golfers from the most handicapped to the pros greater performance in the fairways. Also, the consistency with distance of its clubs gives the golfer an edge when planning which club to use where. It is tour inspired so that it provides easy play ability in different situations. Especially with one of its hybrid clubs, the R15’s shape is so striking at address that it will give the advantage to the better player while for the others who use it, it will be remembered most for its performance.

What Makes TaylorMade Golf Stand Out?

Standing out in golf is a matter of consequence for Taylormade Golf. Their mission is to create performance in golf. And performance it is they have in mind when they consciously came out with clubs and accessories not only for the pros but also to those aspiring to play the game, young and old, men and women, high handicapped or not.

Taylormade golfMost especially for the hybrids which are replacing the irons in the greens, they never stopped re-engineering these clubs to exactly fit the players’ game. They will custom fit your rescues such that you either get an M1 (for personalized distance and control for the pros) or an M2 (for maximized distance and forgiveness for the more handicapped).

With the flexibility already given by the hybrids plus the personalized fit when you get your Taylormade Golf club, you surely can never go wrong. Imagine yourself walking in the green, armed with your precious clubs-not even the worst of weathers can dampen your spirits with the confidence that you have with you the best clubs ever made for golf.

We at Rockbottom Golf will be more than happy to help you pursue your golfing dream. Visit our stores and get the feel of our new hybrid clubs. Our managers would be more than glad to help you select your first set of clubs. We currently have a sale on hybrids and stocks are running fast. It’s time to stop watching the game: be there where the action is!

What Are The Benefits Of Using Patches? ?>

What Are The Benefits Of Using Patches?

Some people who are searching for patches don’t even know that there are other options available aside from embroidered types. Did you know that woven ones are also popular among patch makers? These items actually offer attractive alternatives to any traditional patch designs while allowing designers to achieve greater flexibility when it comes to styles. Patches4less can help you find the right patch designs to match your specific requirements. In fact, it is our privilege to help you create the ultimate output you want using our quality patch products on the web.

Maximizing Fabric Styles and Appeal

The following will provide you with the best ways on how to take advantage of an iron on patch along with the benefits it has to offer various types of businesses:

• Smoother finish

Custom PatchesAn embroidered patch has naturally heaved surface unlike a woven patch that is completely smooth and flat. The elevated surfaces of embroidered patches create more professional and elegant look.

• Detail

An iron on woven patch allow for more excellent details to be incorporated in the designs. This is particularly ideal for logos and patch concepts that are complex and need color gradients. The details are preserved beautifully while the embroidered patch loses some important details due to certain manufacturing methods used.

• Photo realism

This is essential in the recreation of human face or a landscape through a woven patch designed to produce impressive blending and shading of photo realism.

• Flexibility

Just like embroidered patch designs, a woven patch may be ironed on a fabric or sewn to create an additional security.

• Unlimited designs

PatchesWoven patch designs are actually unlimited so you can choose the best one that can maximize your garments’ appearance. Whether you want specific colors, shapes, or layouts, we can help you make the ultimate design you want.

• Cost effective

Choosing Patchess4Less will offer you cheaper items that are made of quality materials and styles.

So when do you use patches?The sheer versatility of these products provides people with unlimited ways to benefit from woven patch designs.

Below are some few suggestions on how to take advantage of these lovely items:

• Customization

If you simply want to boost your clothing company’s sales, then you can create unique garments with the use of woven patch styles that significantly add more attractive details.

• Teams

Woven labels offer more professional look for team or group uniforms. You simply attach the patch on hoodies or tee shirts in order to style them up. If you have a sports team and you want them to be recognized and differentiated from the crowd, you can add logo-inspired woven patches to the garments.

• Clothing labels

Iron On PatchesLogos make any garment stand out from other clothing lines. Through woven patch designs, you can create attention-grabbing outfits that people will surely love. A woven patch can easily be attached to shirts, jackets, caps, and other types of clothes.

• Online sales

Talented designers nowadays make the best ways just to sell their items. And if you also want to increase your clientele base, you can invade the online marketplace and showcase your quality products to your target audience. All you need to do is create social media accounts and a website to feed your target market with updated about your brand.

• Gift items

One of the excellent benefits of an embroidered or woven patch is that they are great as gift items. You can give them away during your corporate events, conferences, or new product release. In addition, you can make sure that your company is remembered by people no matter where they go.

There are lots of things to know more about the different types of patch designs available around the world. However, it’s enough to understand how important it is to incorporate beautiful embellishments to your garments as well as other everyday outfits. To get more details about these products, please feel free to check out our website here. With Patches4Less, you are guaranteed to receive quality additions to your beloved garments while enjoying budget friendly products from our reputable company of patch designs. Let us help you style up your jackets, shirts, and caps with exceptional patch items offered online.

5 Steps To Become A Successful Motivational Speaker ?>

5 Steps To Become A Successful Motivational Speaker

Every motivational speaker wants to be above the rest. Successful and popular speakers are paid higher and have more speaking engagements. They travel around to speak about their passions and motivate people with their ideas. To become successful, you need to start soon as possible.

You need to establish a reputation of your own. Here are some of the most important tips you need to follow:

1. Learn from the best

If you want to build a lasting career, learn from experts in the field. Get mentors to guide you on your ventures. Learn from experienced life coaches. Observe what other popular speakers are doing. Build professional connections to help you raise your own standards. You can be the best if you learn from best teachers in the industry.

Successful Speakers

2. Have something special or valuable to say

Successful motivational speaker knows how to use his personal story to motivate and inspire people. Personal experiences are more convincing as tools to capture the interest of audience. People want to know how you are able to overcome your own struggles and what lessons you learn. By getting personal, you encourage people to connect with you as friend or confidante. They will trust you and in turn, allow you to help them overcome their own emotional battles.

3. Target specific audience

It is important to know your audience. Successful speakers focus first on the area that they know very well before venturing into other fields. As beginner, you need to focus on what you believe is your niche. Know what you can share, what you can do, how to do it and why you want to do it. After answering these questions, you can now write your presentation. Different audiences require different approaches. You need to adapt your speech to needs and expectations of the group to connect with them. You need to build a rapport to make a connection to enable them to act and react on your presentation.

4. Improve your speaking ability

To become a successful motivational speaker, you need to give life to your speech. Your speaking voice is very important. Visit www.motivational-speaker-success.com here for more information about motivational speaker. You must have a lively, engaging and confident voice to express your thoughts excellently. Sign-up to speech clinics to develop strong communication skills. Practice your speech. Master your speech. You can videotape how you deliver your presentation. By doing this, you will observe your body language, mannerisms, intonations and other things that are important to deliver a good speech. If you see some flaws, you have time to change your way of delivery or improve some areas in your presentation. You must be the first person to be convinced that you are the best.

5. Advertise yourself

Good SpeakerSelling yourself is vital to become successful. Do not expect clients to search for you, especially if you are new in this career. They will though, once you become a famous motivational speaker. But for now, you need to build your own path. Marketing yourself nowadays is not as difficult as before because of modern technology particularly internet. You can make a name of yourself by getting your own website and start writing or sharing your thoughts and ideas on topics that you know best. Blogging can help you create a virtual community of your own. When you have great following and their responses are overflowing, you can become an internet sensation. People will notice you and clients will be interested about you. It is important to let them see how good you are first before they pay for your services.

And lastly, do not stop learning. Do not settle for less. Keep improving your craft to enhance your talents and skills. You will discover more about you and your abilities. Lessons you learn along the way will make you more inspired to share your expertise. It will make you more successful as a motivational speaker.

Top Uses of Lapel Pins in the Modern Times ?>

Top Uses of Lapel Pins in the Modern Times

Lapel pins are usually small ornaments worn over the lapel or collar of one’s clothing. However, they can also be attached to baseball caps, sashes, bags, and other accessories as a decoration. The popularity of lapel pins dates back to the ancient period when they were usually worn by officers in the armed forces. Today, the practice has evolved into a lot of other uses both in business and for fun. Here, we discuss the top two most popular uses of pins in the modern times.

Military Pins

 

just like in the olden days, military lapel pins are one of the most popular types today. They are worn for various purposes as patriotism, remembrance, recognition and membership. Patriotic pins are worn by enlisted personnel to instill and remind them of the patriotic duty that they hold dear in the profession. These pins may not be limited to standard military issue as even informal groups or individual soldiers design their own pins. As remembrance pins, these are distributed to enlisted personnel to commemorate special occasions and anniversaries such as the 4th of July. Pins of this type are also shared to the civilian population such as family members and friends in the form of souvenir items and tokens.

lapel pinsWithin the ranks, pins are also worn to signify one’s rank, individual achievements or entry into an elite specialized group within the structure. These pins are often worn as a badge of honor and to distinguish high ranking officials from the rest of the members of the corps. Each branch of the armed force may also be identified with the pins that military personnel wear together with their uniforms. It indicates whether one is serving the navy, the air force, the intelligence units, the engineering corps, or other service units within the military establishment.

These types of pins may be difficult to acquire if you are not a member of the military. However, auctions and garage sales offer opportunities to get one. You may even find antique and historical pieces dating back to the Civil War era, which might also be valued highly by those interested in collecting such pieces.

Business Pins

 

Lapel pins are largely used in the business community. One example is as identification tags and token items during business conventions, conference, trade shows, and seminars. This type is often collected by those attending these types of social and business gatherings. Exhibit participants often have pins for distribution to those who visit their exhibit areas and booths.

The pins are also used as promotional items for companies promoting their products and services. Though a bit more costly compared to other marketing collaterals used in advertising, the pins are more durable and valuable and could last longer. They are often very effective in promoting brand recognition by the public, enticing potential customers and enhancing loyalty for frequent clients and users of the products and services.

Within the company, recognition pins are given as tokens and rewards to outstanding employees and those who have been with the company for a number of years already. Retiring employees also get special pins as a token for their years of service rendered. Carefully crafted pins made of precious metals are often valued pieces used to motivate and promote loyalty within the ranks.

The lapel pins are also used to indicate the position, responsibility, and/or the department where the employee belongs. In some companies, the pins replace the identification cards that are commonly used in work places. Aside from the aesthetic and identification purposes, such pins can also help bolster security to identify bona fide employees from those who are in disguise to enter company headquarters or compounds.

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